EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 Infrared (10.8 µm) images (above; click image to play animation) showed an isolated supercell thunderstorm which quickly developed over the eastern Mediterranean Sea and moved eastward across central Italy on 05 September 2015. This storm produced large in the Naples area (station identifier LIRN); hail was as large as 10 cm (3.94 inches) in diameter in the city of Pozzouli, which was just south of the vertex of the well-defined “enhanced-V” storm-top signature as seen in IR images from the SSEC RealEarth web map server site (below; click images to play animation). The coldest cloud-top IR brightness temperature was -73.5º C at 0900 UTC. Meteosat-10 High Resolution Visible (0.8 µm) images (below; click image to play animation) revealed the tell-tale shadows cast by overshooting tops associated with the vigorous updrafts within this large and intense thunderstorm.
NHC discussion on the following morning, Fred was the first hurricane to pass through the Cape Verde Islands since 1892. While no central eye was apparent on GOES-13 (GOES-East) Visible (0.63 um) and Infrared (10.7 um) images at 0845 UTC (above), a DMSP SSMIS 85 GHz microwave image sourced from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site did reveal a small eye at 0904 UTC (below). Later in the day, a few Tropical Overshooting Tops were analyzed using Meteosat-10 Infrared (10.8 um) imagery (below). More information about Hurricane Fred can be found here.Tropical Storm Fred reached hurricane intensity east of the Cape Verde Islands late in the day on 30 August 2015. As mentioned in the
Leeward Islands of the eastern Caribbean. A general increase in convection in the 24 hours shown is obvious. Visible imagery (below) from the morning of 26 August shows some overshooting tops within the central dense overcast (CDO) covering the low-level circulation. A plot of the number of overshooting tops in Erika is here (taken from this webpage). Outward-propagating gravity waves can also be seen at the top of the CDO. Surface winds as observed by the Metop ASCAT Scatterometer early on 26 August (0056 UTC), below, show a modest circulation with winds that are mostly below tropical storm force (Added: The 1411 UTC image, bottom, shows some tropical-storm force wind flags). Dry Saharan Air Layer air should not limit intensification of Erika, but wind shear just north and west of the storm is strong (SAL and Wind Shear imagery taken from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site). For the most recent forecasts on Erika’s future, see the National Hurricane Center website.GOES-13 Infrared Imagery (above) for the 24 hours ending 1415 UTC on 26 August 2015 show Tropical Storm Erika approaching the
SRSO-R visible images (above; click to play MP4 animation; also available as a 130 Mbyte animated GIF) showed the eye and surrounding cloud structure of Category 2 Hurricane Danny on 21 August 2015. The hazy signature of a dust-laden Saharan Air Layer (SAL) could be seen to the west, northwest, and north of the storm. The compact circulation of Danny remained fairly “isolated” from the multiple pockets of SAL which stretched westward across much of the tropical Atlantic Ocean (above). The relatively clear dust-free air surrounding Danny was tropical moisture being wrapped northward into the circulation from the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), as seen with the MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product (below). A close-up view of Hurricane Danny (below; click image to play MP4 animation) showed some interesting detail in the convective bursts within the eyewall region, in spite of the very oblique satellite viewing angle. There is also a large (165 Mbyte) animated GIF available here.1-minute interval GOES-14