Smoke plumes from Saudi Arabian oil facilities

September 15th, 2019 |

VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Visible (0.64 µm) imagery from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Visible (0.64 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 (courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Visible (0.64 µm) imagery from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 (above) revealed dark smoke plumes from oil refineries and other facilities damaged by drone strikes early in the day on 14 September 2019.

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images (below) showed the south-southwestward transport of the smoke plumes. Thick smoke drifted over Al Ahsa (OEAH), and at one point restricted to 2.8 miles.

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation | MP4]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation | MP4]

Before (13 September) and after (14-15 September) True Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images from Terra MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS as viewed using RealEarth are shown below.

True Color RGB images from Terra MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS, from 13-15 September [click to enlarge]

True Color RGB images from Terra MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS, from 13-15 September [click to enlarge]

A sequence of 3 VIIRS Day/Night Band images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 (below) showed nighttime views of the smoke plumes, illuminated by the Moon (which was in the Waning Gibbous phase, at 98% of Full).

VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 (courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

A Meteosat-8 Visible animation spanning portions of 14, 15 and 16 September is shown below.

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation | MP4]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images with hourly plots of surface reports, 14-16 September [click to play animation | MP4]

===== 17 September Update =====

Landsat-8 False Color image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False Color RGB image [click to enlarge]

A 30-meter resolution Landsat-8 False Color RGB image (above) showed a number of smoke plumes from oil facility fires that continued to burn on 17 September.

Cyclone Fani makes landfall in India

May 3rd, 2019 |

EUMETSAT-8 Meteosat-8 Infrared Window (10.8 µm) umages [click to play animation | MP4]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images (above) showed the intensification of Cyclone Fani to a high-end Category 4 storm on 02 May 2019 (ADT | SATCON | PGTW advisory), before eventually making landfall in northeastern India at 0230 UTC on 03 May. During its life cycle, Fani moved over warm sea surface temperature values of 29-30ºC — and deep-layer wind shear of only 5-10 knots on 02 May provided an environment favorable for rapid intensification.

Once inland, Fani was in the process of rapidly weakening to a Category 1 storm as it passed over Bhabaneswar (VEBS), and surface wind gusts to 75 knots were reported at that site (below).

Time series plot of surface observations from Bhabaneswar, India [click to enlarge]

Time series plot of surface observations from Bhabaneswar, India [click to enlarge]

A sequence of VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP as viewed using RealEarth (below) showed snapshots of Fani from 19 UTC on 01 May (over the Bay of Bengal) to 07 UTC on 03 May (after landfall).

Sequence of NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Sequence of NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

A comparison of VIIRS True Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP on 02 May (below) showed Fani shortly after it had reached Category 4 intensity.

VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP [click to enlarge]

VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP [click to enlarge]

DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image at 1230 UTC + Meteosat-8 Infrared Window (10.8 µm) image at 1300 UTC [click to enlarge]

DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image at 1230 UTC + Meteosat-8 Infrared Window (10.8 µm) image at 1300 UTC [click to enlarge]

A toggle between a DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave image at 1230 UTC and a Meteosat-8 Infrared Window image at 1300 UTC  from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (above) showed the eye and totally closed eyewall of Fani when it was at its peak intensity on 02 May. However, the MIMIC TC product (below) indicated that the eastern portion of the eyewall started to erode as Fani approached the coast and began to undergo an eyewall replacement cycle.

MIMIC TC morphed microwave product, 01-02 May [click to enlarge]

MIMIC TC morphed microwave product, 01-02 May [click to enlarge]

On 30 April, VIIRS DayNight Band (0.7 µm) images (below, courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) revealed widespread mesospheric airglow waves (reference) within the western semicircle of the storm, along with numerous bright lightning streaks associated with convection south of the storm center.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1939 UTC on 30 April [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1939 UTC on 30 April [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 2029 UTC on 30 April [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 2029 UTC on 30 April [click to enlarge]

Storm Hannah moves across the British Isles

April 26th, 2019 |

True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to play animation]

VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to play animation]

A sequence of VIIRS True Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 as viewed using RealEarth (above) showed “Storm Hannah” as it approached Ireland and the United Kingdom on 26 April 2019. The midlatitude cyclone had peaked in intensity as a Hurricane Force low around that time (surface analyses).

EUMETSAT Meteosat-11 Water Vapor (6.25 µm) images (below) showed winds gusting to 40-65 knots at several sites in southern Ireland and southern England, as the dry slot air stream moved across the region. In Ireland the peak wind gust was 66 knots at Mace Head, with 64 knots at Shannon — wind gusts in southern England included 71 knots at Aberderon, 68 knots at Pembrey Sands and 52 knots at Valley.

Meteosat-11 Water Vapor (6.25 µm) images with plots of surface winds and gusts [click to play animation | MP4]

Meteosat-11 Water Vapor (6.25 µm) images with plots of surface winds and gusts [click to play animation | MP4]

Cyclone Kenneth makes landfall in Mozambique

April 25th, 2019 |

Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images (above) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images (below) showed Category 4 Cyclone Kenneth (12 UTC JTWC advisory) making landfall along the northeast coast of Mozambique (north of Pemba FQPB: surface observations) on 25 April 2019. Kenneth had been moving over warm water and through an environment of low deep-layer wind shear, factors favorable for its rapid intensification (ADT | SATCON). After making landfall, Kenneth rapidly weakened to Category 1 intensity by 18 UTC — but Metop-A ASCAT winds of 40-49 knots were still sampled along the coast on the rear periphery of the storm. The slow inland movement of the remnants of Kenneth combined with copious amounts of tropical moisture as depicted by MIMIC TPW posed a concern for potential flooding problems.

Meteosat-8 Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Meteosat-8 Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

VIIRS True Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20, viewed using RealEarth (below), provided higher-resolution views of Kenneth a few hours prior to landfall. This was the strongest tropical cyclone landfall on record for the northern portion of Mozambique, as discussed here.

VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to enlarge]

VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (89 GHz) image (below, courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) showed the eye and spiral band structures near the Mozambique coast at 1030 UTC on 25 April. The evolution of the eye since its initial formation on 23 April was evident in the MIMIC TC product.

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (89 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (89 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

A longer animation of Meteosat-8 Infrared images (below) during the later half of its storm track showed the formation of an eye as Kenneth began its period of rapid intensification on 24 April. Cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures were -90ºC and colder (yellow pixels embedded with darker shades of purple) during the 1030-1800 UTC period on 24 April. Note that the center of Kenneth passed just north of the island of Grande Comore soon after the eye had developed — at Prince Said Ibrahim International Airport FMCH in Moroni, southeast winds gusted to 65 knots at 21 UTC 0n 24 April as the southern eyewall passed over the island.

Meteosat-8 Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Meteosat-8 Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images (below, courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) showed Kenneth at 2232 UTC on 24 April, shortly before the tropical cyclone had reached Category 4 intensity. Ample illumination from the Moon — in the Waning Gibbous phase, at 73% of Full — provided an excellent example of the “visible image at night” capability of the VIIRS Day/Night Band.

NOAA-20 Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]