Deadly Fire in Portugal

June 18th, 2017 |

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band Visible Imagery (0.70 µm) at 0240 UTC on 18 June 2017 (Click to enlarge)

(Images in this blog post were created by William Straka, SSEC. Thanks William!!)

Parts of Pedrogao Grande in central Portugal (northeast of Lisbon) burned over the weekend in a massive forest fire. At least 62 people were killed (News Link; Youtube Video 1, 2). Suomi NPP overflew the region shortly after the fire started, and annotated VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) Day/Night Band imagery is shown above (Click here for an image without annotation).  The size of the bright light signature from the fire (overlain with thin clouds) rivals that of Lisbon.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared imagery ( 3.75 µm) at 0240 UTC on 18 June 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Shortwave Infrared channels on Suomi NPP also testify to the intensity of the fire. The 3.75 µm above (Click here for an image with no labels) shows a saturated pixel (exceeding 367 K) over the hottest part of the fire.  The 1.61 µm channel in the near infrared also had a strong signal.   The 4.05 µm imagery (Click here for an image without annotation) shown below had a maximum brightness temperature exceeding 550 K! (This channel was specifically designed for fire detection).

Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared Imagery (4.05 µm) at 0240 UTC on 18 June 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Meteosat-10 Severi Infrared Imagery (3.9 µm) from 0000 to 0400 UTC on 18 June 2017 (click to enlarge)

The SEVERI Instrument on Meteosat-10 also detected this fire, and because Meteosat is geostationary, it provided better temporal coverage vs. the single snapshot from Suomi NPP. The animation above shows considerable cloud cover over Portugal, but very warm pixels are present starting after 0145 UTC. The toggle below compares 3.9 µm SEVIRI at 0245 UTC with 3.75 µm Suomi NPP VIIRS at 0240 UTC. The better spatial resolution of the VIIRS instrument is apparent, as are much warmer temperatures as expected given the smaller pixel size on VIIRS.  Note also a slight parallax shift.

Shortwave Infrared Imagery (3.9 µm from Meteosat-10 SEVIRI at 0245 UTC and 3.75 µm from Suomi NPP VIIRS at 0240 UTC) over Portugal (Click to enlarge)


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Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band visible (0.70 µm) imagery at 0145 UTC on 19 June 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Data from the 0145 UTC 19 June overpass on Suomi NPP show that the fire continues, although with less intensity. The Day/Night Band (above) and the 3.75 µm Shortwave Infrared (below) show the fire locations.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.75 µm) imagery at 0145 UTC on 19 June 2017 (Click to enlarge)

 

High wind event in Moscow, Russia

May 29th, 2017 |

Meteosat-10 Visible (0.8 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm, right) images [click to play animation]

Meteosat-10 Visible (0.8 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm, right) images [click to play animation]

High winds associated with a strong cold frontal passage were responsible for 16 fatalities and 168 injuries in Moscow, Russia on 29 May 2017 (CNN | BBC). EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 High Resolution Visible (0.8 µm) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images (above; MP4 ) showed the cluster of thunderstorms that moved through the region. Plotted in yellow are 4-letter station identifiers of the three principal Moscow airports (UUEE, UUWW and UUDD). The cloud-top Infrared brightness temperatures of the thunderstorm cluster exhibited a distinct bowing structure on Infrared imagery around the time of the highest winds (1230 UTC).

On the corresponding Meteosat-10 Water Vapor (6.25 µm) images (below; MP4), the well-defined signature of a middle-tropospheric vorticity center could be seen.

Meteosat-10 Water Vapor (6.25 µm) images [click to play animation]

Meteosat-10 Water Vapor (6.25 µm) images [click to play animation]

Time series plots of surface observations from the 3 major Moscow airports (below) showed that Sheremetyevo International Airport (UUEE) recorded a wind gust of 54 knots (62 mph) at 1230 UTC — also note the sharp drop in air temperature as the cold front passed.

Time series of surface observations at Sheremetyevo International Airport UUEE [click to enlarge]

Time series of surface observations at Sheremetyevo International Airport UUEE [click to enlarge]

Time series of surface observations at Vnukovo International Airport UUWW [click to enlarge]

Time series of surface observations at Vnukovo International Airport UUWW [click to enlarge]

Time series of surface observations at Domodedovo International Airport UUDD [click to enlarge]

Time series of surface observations at Domodedovo International Airport UUDD [click to enlarge]

Thermal signature of missile strikes at Shayrat Air Base in Syria

April 7th, 2017 |

EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly surface reports; Shayrat Air Base is located at the center of the cyan circle [click to play animation]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly surface reports; Shayrat Air Base is located at the center of the cyan circle [click to play animation]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) showed the thermal signature or “hot spot” (darker black pixels) of fires resulting from US missile strikes at Syria’s Shayrat Air Base on 07 April 2017. The warmest infrared brightness temperature was 300.22 K on the 0030 UTC image (the SEVIRI instrument was scanning the Shayrat region at 00:40 UTC), which was about 25 K warmer than the surrounding background temperatures; though the fires were much smaller than the nominal 3 km spatial resolution of the 3.9 µm detector, the sub-pixel effect enables a signal of the fire radiative power to be registered.

A toggle between the 0015 and 0030 UTC images displayed using McIDAS-V (below; courtesy of William Straka, SSEC) highlights the appearance of the thermal signature at Shayrat Air Base. Two persistent hot spots located northeast of Palmyra could have been due to refinery or mining activities.

EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images at 0015 and 0030 UTC [click to enlarge]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images at 0015 and 0030 UTC [click to enlarge]

Storm “Doris” affects the British Isles

February 23rd, 2017 |

Meteosat-10 Water Vapor (6.25 µm) images, with hourly surface wind gusts in knots [click to play animation]

Meteosat-10 Water Vapor (6.25 µm) images, with hourly surface wind gusts in knots [click to play animation]

Storm “Doris” affected the British Isles on 23 February 2017, producing strong winds and heavy rainfall. The mid-latitude cyclone rapidly intensified from a central pressure of 1004 hPa at 12 UTC on 22 February to 972 hPa at 12 UTC on 23 February (surface analyses) . EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 Water Vapor (6.25 µm) images (above) exhibited the “scorpion tail” signature of a sting jet (Monthly Weather Review | Wikipedia), and surface wind gusts included 58 knots at Dublin, 64 knots at Wittering and 69 knots at Valley.

The corresponding daylight Meteosat-10 High Resolution Visible (0.8 µm) images (below) revealed better detail of the various cloud structures associated with the storm.

Meteosat-10 High Resolution Visible (0.8 µm) images, with hourly surface wind gusts in knots [click to play animation]

Meteosat-10 High Resolution Visible (0.8 µm) images, with hourly surface wind gusts in knots [click to play animation]

True-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images from Terra/Aqua MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS visualized using RealEarth are shown below. EUMETSAT posted a natural-color RGB animation here.

Terra MODIS (1039 UTC), Aqua MODIS (1226 UTC) and Suomi NPP VIIRS (1248 UTC) true-color RGB images [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS (1039 UTC), Aqua MODIS (1226 UTC) and Suomi NPP VIIRS (1248 UTC) true-color RGB images [click to enlarge]