Meteorite impact in Cuba

February 1st, 2019 |

GOES-16 Split Cloud Top Phase (11.2 - 8.4 µm), Split Window (10.3 - 12.3 µm), Near-Infrared

GOES-16 Split Cloud Top Phase (11.2 – 8.4 µm), Split Window (10.3 – 12.3 µm), Near-Infrared “Cirrus” (1.37 µm) and “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to enlarge]

A meteorite landed near Viñales, Pinar del Río in western Cuba (about 58 miles or 93 km northeast of San Julian MUSJ) on 01 February 2019. GOES-16 (GOES-East) Split Cloud Top Phase (11.2 – 8.4 µm), Split Window (10.3 – 12.3 µm), Near-Infrared “Cirrus” (1.37 µm) and “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (above) revealed signatures of the airborne debris cloud as it drifted northeastward then eastward for about an hour after the impact (which occurred around 1817 UTC) — during that hour (from 1817 to 1917 UTC) the debris cloud traveled about 40 miles. A brief signature of another (lower-altitude) debris cloud moving southwestward was also seen immediately following impact, which was most apparent in the Split Window and Cirrus images.

The signatures in the Split Cloud Top Phase and Split Window imagery were due to the presence of mineral dust particles within the debris cloud — the emissivity properties of dust affects the sensed brightness temperatures differently for various infrared spectral bands. The Cirrus spectral band is useful for detecting the scattering of light by airborne particles such as ice crystals, volcanic ash, smoke or dust. The debris cloud was also casting a subtle shadow onto the surface, as seen in the Visible imagery.

Rawinsonde data from Key West, Florida (below) indicated that the northeastward to eastward drift of the debris cloud at a velocity of about 40 mph (35 knots) would have been occurring at altitudes of 4.9-5.5 km (pressures of 565-522 hPa).

Plots of rawinsonde data from Key West, Florida [click to enlarge]

Plots of rawinsonde data from Key West, Florida [click to enlarge]

The GOES-16 Geostationary Lightning Mapper also exhibited a signature around the time of the meteorite impact, as discussed here. Looking at GOES-16 Upper-level (6.2 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm), Low-level (7.3 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images with plots of GLM Groups (below), a faint debris cloud signature could best be followed in the 7.3 µm imagery (AWIPS animation) after the 1817 UTC impact — but for a shorter time period than what was seen with the other GOES-16 examples shown above. While the Water Vapor band weighting functions for Key West had peaks at fairly low altitudes for 7.3 µm and 6.9 µm, the signature for any low/mid-tropospheric features would have been masked by absorption and re-radiation from moist layers within the upper troposphere.

GOES-16 Upper-level (6.2 µm, top left), Mid-level (6.9 µm, top right), Low-level (7.3 µm, bottom left) and

GOES-16 Upper-level (6.2 µm, top left), Mid-level (6.9 µm, top right), Low-level (7.3 µm, bottom left) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom right) images, with GLM Groups accumulated during the 5-minute period ending at the image time plotted in red [click to play animation | MP4]

* GOES-17 imagery shown here is preliminary and non-operational *

The bright signature of the bolide exploding as it entered the Earth’s atmosphere was also detected by the GLM instrument on GOES-17, although the viewing angle was much larger (with a zenith angle of 67 degrees, vs 30 degrees from GOES-16). The GLM Groups detected by both GOES-17 and GOES-16 were plotted with and without the native parallax correction (below).

"Red" Visible (0.64 µm) and Low-level Water Vapor (7.3 µm) images from GOES-17 (left) and GOES-16 (right), with GLM Groups accumulated during the 15-minute period ending at 1830 UTC plotted in red [click to enlarge]

“Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and Low-level Water Vapor (7.3 µm) images from GOES-17 (left) and GOES-16 (right), with GLM Groups accumulated during the 15-minute period ending at 1830 UTC plotted in red [click to enlarge]



Eruption of the Anak Krakatau volcano in Indonesia

December 22nd, 2018 |

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports from Jakarta (station identifier WIII) [click to play animation | MP4]

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (above) showed the volcanic cloud from an eruption of Anak Krakatau in Indonesia on 22 December 2018. Two distinct pulses were evident: the first began around 1340 UTC, with the second starting around 1520 UTC. At times the cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures were -80ºC or colder (violet enhancement) — which roughly corresponded to altitudes around 15-16 km on rawinsonde data from nearby Jakarta (WIII) (below). The eruption process appears to have played a role in generating a tsunami that was responsible for over 400 fatalities — via a partial collapse of the southern flank of the volcano which then triggered an undersea landslide (visualization).

Plots of rawinsonde data from Jakarta, Indonesia [click to enlarge]

Plots of rawinsonde data from Jakarta, Indonesia [click to enlarge]

After sunrise, the volcanic cloud was evident in Himawari-8 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (below) — a toggle between Visible and Infrared images at 0110 UTC showed an example of one of the cold overshooting tops.

Himawari-8 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) images. with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation | MP4]

Himawari-8 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports from Jakarta (station identifier WIII) [click to play animation | MP4]

At the onset of the eruption, multi-spectral retrievals from the NOAA/CIMSS Volcanic Cloud Monitoring site showed Ash Height values of 12-14 km and Ash Loading values of 9-10 g/m2 (below). However, after about 1.5 hours the extremely high water and ice content of the volcanic cloud prevented further retrievals of such parameters.

Himawari-8 Ash Height retrievals [click to play animation]

Himawari-8 Ash Height retrievals [click to play animation]

Himawari-8 Ash Loading retrievals [click to play animation]

Himawari-8 Ash Loading retrievals [click to play animation]

A toggle between NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images viewed using RealEarth (below) showed the volcanic cloud at 0610 UTC on 23 December.

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 0610 UTC [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 0610 UTC [click to enlarge]

A comparison of Infrared Window images from NOAA-20 VIIRS (11.45 µm) and Himawari-8 AHI (10.4 µm) at 0610 UTC (below) demonstrated the advantage of improved spatial resolution — the minimum cloud-top infrared brightness temperature of the overshooting top feature was significantly colder on the 375-m resolution VIIRS image (-87ºC, darker shade of violet) than on the corresponding AHI image with 2-km resolution at satellite sub-point (-74.2ºC).

Infrared Window images from NOAA-20 VIIRS (11.45 µm) and Himawari-8 AHI (10.4 µm) [click to enlarge]

0610 UTC Infrared Window images from NOAA-20 VIIRS (11.45 µm) and Himawari-8 AHI (10.4 µm) [click to enlarge]

There was also a significant amount of lightning associated with this volcanic cloud:


A comparison of Himawari-8 Visible and Infrared images showed the persistent volcanic cloud following sunrise on 23 December (below). The pulsing overshooting tops continued to exhibit infrared brightness temperatures as cold as -80ºC at times.

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm, bottom) images [click to play animation | MP4]

===== 24 December Update =====

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images (above) provided a detailed view of the volcanic cloud at 0550 UTC on 24 December.

A long animation of Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images spanning over 48 hours from the onset of the eruption (below) showed the remarkably persistent volcanic cloud, with pulsing overshooting tops anchored over Anak Krakatau.

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images, with hourly surface report plots from Jakarta WIII {click to play animation | MP4]

===== 25 December Update =====

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

In a toggle between NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 0710 UTC on 25 December (above), a few -90ºC pixels could be seen embedded within the darker purple area of the overshooting top on the Infrared image. Note that there was some westward parallax shift of the image features, due to the scene being near the edge of the VIIRS scan.

The coldest pixels on another NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared image at 1810 UTC (below) were still within the -80 to -87ºC range.

NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) image [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) image [click to enlarge]

An updated long animation of Himawari-8 Infrared images (below) continued to show periodic bursts of cold pixels within overshooting tops above the eruption site.

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images, 22-25 December [click to play MP4 animation]

===== 28 December Update =====

Himawari-8 "Clean" Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images, 22-28 December [click to play MP4 animation]

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images, 22-28 December [click to play MP4 animation]

An updated long animation of Himawari-8 Infrared images (above) revealed that the volcanic thunderstorm — which had persisted over the eruption site nearly continuously since 1350 UTC on 22 December — underwent its final pulse around 0640 UTC on 28 December, and was no longer seen after 0900 UTC. The volcanic thunderstorm began its transition from being nearly continuous to a phase of discrete discontinuous pulses after about 0500 UTC on 27 December; the last image with cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures of -80ºC or colder was 2110 UTC on that day.

NOAA-20 captured one of the final convective pulses around 0620 UTC on 28 December (below), when the coldest cloud tops were in the -50 to -55ºC range (yellow to orange enhancement).

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]



Severe thunderstorms in Argentina

December 10th, 2018 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images [click to play MP4 animation]

A comparison of GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) showed the development of thunderstorms well ahead of a cold front (surface analyses) that was moving northward across central Argentina on 10 December 2018. A Mesoscale Domain Sector had been positioned over that region in support of the RELAMPAGO-CACTI field experiment IOP15, providing imagery at 1-minute intervals. The northernmost storm (of a cluster of 3) featured a very pronounced overshooting top that was seen for several hours, briefly exhibiting infrared brightness temperatures as cold as -80ºC (violet enhancement) at 2133 UTC and 2134 UTC. Also noteworthy was the long-lived “warm trench” (arc of yellow enhancement) immediately downwind of the persistent cold overshooting top.

Plots of GOES-16 GLM Groups on the Visible and Infrared images (below) showed a good deal of lightning activity with this convection — especially in the leading anvil region east of the storm core. However, it is interesting to point out that there was a general lack of satellite-detected lightning directly over the large and persistent overshooting top. The GLM Groups were plotted with the default parallax correction removed, so the optical emissions of the lightning aligned with cloud-top features as seen on the ABI imagery.

GOES-16 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm, top) with GLM Groups and "Clean" Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top) with GLM Groups and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images [click to play MP4 animation]

A similar comparison of GOES-16 Visible and Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images (below) helped to highlight the formation of multiple Above-Anvil Cirrus Plume (AACP) features, which are signatures of thunderstorms that are producing (or could soon be producing) severe weather such as tornadoes, large hail or damaging winds. The appearance of gravity waves upshear (west) of the overshooting top was also very apparent.

GOES-16 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm, top) and Near-Infrared "Snow/Ice" (1.61 µm, bottom) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top) and Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm, bottom) images [click to play MP4 animation]

Plot of severe weather reports [click to enlarge]

Plot of severe weather reports [click to enlarge]

There were several reports of hail with these particular thunderstorms (above), concentrated in the area between 35-36º S latitude and 62-65º W longitude. GOES-16 Visible images (below) showed this was the area under the path of the more northern storm with the prolonged overshooting top and the prominent AACP. This convection produced very large hail in Ingeniero Luiggi and General Villegas (located at 35.5º S, 64.5º W and 35º S, 63º W respectively) — see the tweets below for photos. On a side note, the large overshooting top began to take on an unusual darker gray appearance after 2230 UTC, possibly suggesting that boundary layer dust or particulate matter was being lofted to the cloud top by the very intense and long-lived updraft — the 18 UTC surface analysis showed that sites northwest of and south of the developing storms were reporting blowing dust.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

Additional GOES-16 animations of these storms can be found on the Satellite Liaison Blog.

A zoom-in of NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) imagery at 1835 UTC viewed using RealEarth  (below) showed the 3 discrete thunderstorms in the vicinity of Santa Rosa.

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB image at 1835 UTC [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB image at 1835 UTC [click to enlarge]

A toggle between NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1835 UTC (below) revealed the cold overshooting tops associated with each of the 3 thunderstorms. Also note the swath of wet soil in the wake of the southern storm, which appears darker in the True Color image and cooler (lighter shades of gray) in the Infrared image.

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1835 UTC [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1835 UTC [click to enlarge]

A toggle between NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1835 UTC on 10 December and 0555 UTC on 11 December (below) showed the upscale growth into a large Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) that moved northeastward (eventually producing flooding in Rosario).

NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1835 UTC on 10 December and 0555UTC on 11 December [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1835 UTC on 10 December and 0555 UTC on 11 December [click to enlarge]


===== 11 December Update =====

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

On the following day, GOES-16 Visible images (above) showed that additional severe thunderstorms developed across northern Argentina, in the general vicinity of a stationary front (surface analyses) east of Cordoba (SACO). Plots of GLM Groups (below) indicated that these storms produced a great deal of lightning.

GOES-16 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) images, with GLM Groups plotted in red [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with GLM Groups plotted in red [click to play MP4 animation]

The corresponding GOES-16 Infrared images, with and without plots of GLM Groups, are shown below. The coldest cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures were frequently colder than -80ºC, even reaching -90ºC (yellow pixels embedded within darker purple areas) from 1946, 1947 and 1948 UTC.

GOES-16 "Clean" Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 "Clean" Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, with GLM Groups plotted cyan [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, with GLM Groups plotted cyan [click to play MP4 animation]

A NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB image (below) showed the cluster of thunderstorms east of Cordoba at 1817 UTC.

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB image at 1817 UTC [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB image at 1817 UTC [click to enlarge]

A toggle between NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1817 UTC (below) showed the easternmost storm which produced a tornado at Santa Elena.

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1817 UTC [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1817 UTC [click to enlarge]



Winter storm affecting the southern Plains to the Mid-Atlantic

December 10th, 2018 |

GOES-16 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface weather type [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface weather type [click to play MP4 animation]

A large storm produced significant winter weather impacts from the southern Plains to the Mid-Atlantic states during the 07 December10 December 2018 period. GOES-16 (GOES-East) Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images (above) showed the progression of the storm during that 3-day interval.

As much as 10-11 inches of snow fell in the Lubbock, Texas area during 07-08 December. A sequence of  Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) and Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images (below) showed the snow cover melting from 09-10 December. Snow cover absorbs radiation at the 1.61 µm wavelength, so it appears very dark on those images.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) and Near-Infrared

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) and Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Portions of northern and northeastern Arkansas received ice accrual of up to 0.5 inches due to freezing rain — those areas with snow and ice on the ground can be seen in a comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) and Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images (below).

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) and Near-Infrared "Snow/Ice" (1.61 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) and Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Significant snowfall resulted across the central Appalachians and Mid-Atlantic, especially for so early in the winter season — 1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (below) revealed embedded convective elements and banding that helped to enhance snowfall rates across that region on 09 December. GLM Groups are also plotted on the images; however, there was no satellite signature of lightning associated with the convective elements until 2130 UTC in north-central North Carolina.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with plots of hourly surface weather type in yellow and GLM Groups in red [click to play MP4 animation]

 

===== 11 December Update =====

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Once clouds cleared the eastern US on 11 December, the areal coverage of snow cover across the central Appalachians and Mid-Atlantic states could be seen in a comparison of GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images (above). Note the darker areas seen on 1.61 µm imagery over parts of eastern Kentucky and also from north-central North Carolina into south-central Virginia: those are areas where the snow cover also received a thin glaze of ice from a period of freezing drizzle/rain.