ACSPO SSTs in AWIPS at WFO Guam

April 24th, 2018 |

ACSPO SSTs constructed from AVHRR, MODIS and VIIRS data from various overpasses at Guam on 18 April 2018 (Click to enlarge)

Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) produced from the Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) are now being created in real time at the National Weather Service Forecast Office on Guam (where the National Weather Service day begins). The algorithm is applied to data broadcast from polar orbiter satellites and received at the Direct Broadcast antenna sited at the forecast office.  Because there are so many polar orbiters broadcasting data — NOAA-18, NOAA-19, Metop-A, Metop-B, Suomi-NPP, Terra, Aqua — cloudy pixels on one pass are typically filled in with data from a subsequent pass.  When ACSPO software for NOAA-20 is available, data from that satellite will be incorporated as well.  The result is a very highly calibrated, accurate depiction of high spatial resolution tropical Pacific SSTs.  A composite created every 12 hours from the imagery is also available at the forecast office.

 

Summary of the 02-03 March Nor’Easter

March 3rd, 2018 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with plots of hourly wind gusts [click to play MP4 animation]

A strong Nor’easter affected much of northeastern portion of the US during 02 March and 03 March 2018. As noted in the previous blog post, the storm produced very strong winds which led to widespread wind damage and power outages. A GOES-16 (GOES-East) Mesoscale Sector was positioned over the storm on 02 March, and “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (above) provided a detailed view of the center of circulation over the western Atlantic.

A 2-day animation of GOES-16 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images (below) showed the evolution of the storm as it moved from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean (surface analyses). A summary of the peak wind gusts and highest snowfall/rainfall totals can be seen here and here.

GOES-16 Mid-level (6.9 µm) images, with plots of hourly wind gusts [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images, with plots of hourly wind gusts [click to play MP4 animation]

On 03 March, a vortex was seen to develop in GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, just behind the occluded frontal boundary — about 30 minutes after a burst of stronger northeasterly winds (with speeds as high as 58 knots) was analyzed in that region by the Metop ASCAT instrument.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with surface fronts and Metop ASCAT surface scatterometer winds [click to play MP4 animation]

A signature of this vortex was also evident in GOES-16 Low-level Water Vapor (7.3 µm) images (below). A toggle between Visible and Water Vapor images at 1605 UTC is available here.

GOES-16 Mid-level (6.9 µm) images, with surface fronts and Metop ASCAT surface scatterometer winds [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Low-level Water Vapor (7.3 µm) images, with surface fronts and Metop ASCAT surface scatterometer winds [click to play MP4 animation]

Finally, a NOAA-20 VIIRS True-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) image centered over Lake Erie at 1839 UTC on 03 March (below) showed the fresh snow cover left by the storm as it moved across the Great Lakes on 02 March. Snow can be seen across parts of Lower Michigan, southern Ontario, northern Ohio, and far northwestern Pennsylvania. NOAA-20 is the first of the JPSS series of satellites (note: the data are still considered preliminary and non-operational as the instruments and products are being evaluated and tested).

NOAA-20 True-color RGB image, centered of Lake Erie [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS True-color RGB image, centered of Lake Erie [click to enlarge]

Satellite signatures of the JPSS-1 launch

November 18th, 2017 |

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) image [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) image [click to enlarge]

The JPSS-1 satellite was successfully launched at 0947 UTC (1:47 AM local time) on 18 November 2017 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California (Spaceflight Now). A Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) image about 22 minutes prior to launch (above; courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) showed light emitted by the launch facility as well as nearby cites and offshore buoys.

A comparison of 3 consecutive images of GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm), Near-Infrared “Cloud Particle Size” (2.24 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 mm) data (below) revealed the thermal signature of the launch rocket booster engines at 0947 UTC (just west of the California coast). The hot thermal signature is brighter white on the Near-Infrared images, and darker gray on the Shortwave Infrared image. Nearby 09 UTC surface observations are also plotted (KVBG = Vandenberg AFB).

GOES-16 Near-Infrared

GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm, left), Near-Infrared “Cloud Particle Size” (2.24 µm, center) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 mm, right) images, with plots of surface observations [click to enlarge]

Since the GOES-16 Water Vapor bands — Lower-level 7.3 µm, Mid-level 6.9 µm and Upper-level 6.2 µm —  are essentially Infrared bands (which sense the mean temperature of a layer of moisture), a warm thermal signature was evident on all three of the 0947 UTC images (below).

GOES-16 Lower-level (7.3 µm, left), Mid-level (6.9 µm, center) and Upper-level (6.2 µm, right) Water Vapor images, with plots of surface reports [click to enlarge]

GOES-16 Lower-level (7.3 µm, left), Mid-level (6.9 µm, center) and Upper-level (6.2 µm, right) Water Vapor images, with plots of surface reports [click to enlarge]

Read about SSEC scientists’ efforts to calibrate and validate CrIS and VIIRS on JPSS-1 here.

* GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing *