GOES-14 SRSO-R: convective outflow boundary in southern Texas

April 20th, 2016

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

1-minute interval SRSO-R GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images (above; also available as a large 259 Mbyte animated GIF) showed a curved outflow boundary — produced by a strong quasi-linear convective system the preceding overnight hours in northern Texas — which continued to propagate southward across southern Texas during the day on 20 April 2016. New clusters of convection formed along and in the wake of the eastern portion of the outflow boundary (which dropped an additional 0.67 inch of rainfall in one hour across the flood-ravaged Houston area), while the western portion was marked by a low-level arc cloud.

On the corresponding GOES-14 Water Vapor (6.5 µm) images (below; also available as a large 126 Mbyte animated GIF), a very subtle signature of the western  part of the outflow boundary could be seen in the dryer atmosphere (where the water vapor weighting functions were shifted to lower altitudes). Also of interest were a few long and narrow contrails which appeared within that same dry region of the atmosphere after about 1800 UTC — these thin contrails were not evident in the GOES-14 visible or infrared imagery.

GOES-14 Water Vapor (6.5 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 Water Vapor (6.5 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

A comparison of the 3 Water Vapor bands (6.5 µm, 7.0 µm and 7.4 µm) available from the GOES-14 sounder instrument (below) demonstrated how each of the individual bands was detecting radiation emitted from a different layer of the troposphere; this was further shown by examining plots of the water vapor weighting functions for the 1 imager and the 3 sounder water vapor bands (calculated using 12 UTC rawinsonde data from Del Rio, Texas KDRT). The ABI instrument on GOES-R will have 3 water vapor bands similar to those on the current generation sounder instrument, but with significantly improved spatial and temporal resolution.

GOES-14 sounder Water Vapor bands 6.5 µm (top), 7.0 µm (middle) and 7.4 µm (bottom) images [click to play animation]

GOES-14 sounder Water Vapor bands 6.5 µm (top), 7.0 µm (middle) and 7.4 µm (bottom) images [click to play animation]

GOES-14 SRSO-R: heavy snow in the Upper Midwest, severe thunderstorms in the Deep South

February 2nd, 2016

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

A strong occluded mid-latitude cyclone moved from the central Plains northeastward across the Upper Midwest on 02 February 2016 (surface analyses). This storm produced a variety of precipitation, most notably heavy snow — exceeding 12 inches at some locations in Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan (map) — and blizzard conditions. One-minute interval Super Rapid Scan (SRSO-R) GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images (above; also available as a large 151-Mbyte animated GIF) showed the cloud-top shadows and textured appearance that is indicative of embedded convection — in fact, many sites in Iowa and southern Wisconsin reported thundersnow which produced snowfall rates of 1-2 inches per hour.

Farther to the south, as moisture from the Gulf of Mexico was drawn northward (GOES-14 sounder Total Precipitable Water derived product images) in advance of the eastward-moving cold frontal boundary (surface analyses) associated with the aforementioned Upper Midwest storm, areas of strong to severe thunderstorms developed across the Mississippi River and Tennessee River Valley regions during the afternoon and evening hours. GOES-14 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images (below; also available as a large 208-Mbyte animated GIF) showed the cold cloud-top IR brightness temperatures (orange to red color enhancement) exhibited by the widespread convective activity.

GOES-14 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

Taking a closer look at the severe thunderstorms which produced multiple tornadoes from eastern Mississippi  into far western Alabama (SPC storm reports), GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images (above; also available as a large 66-Mbyte animated GIF) revealed numerous overshooting tops; the counties where tornadoes were reported are indicated by their dashed red outlines. Another visible image animation from RAMMB/CIRA is available here. NWS storm damage surveys (Jackson MS | Birmingham AL) found EF-1 to EF-2 damage in both Mississippi and Alabama.

The corresponding GOES-14 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images (below; also available as a large 37-Mbyte animated GIF) indicated that the coldest cloud-top IR brightness temperatures were in the -50º to -60º range (darker orange to red color enhancement), which was at or above the tropopause level according the Jackson MS and Birmingham AL rawinsonde data.

GOES-14 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 Sounder Operations

January 31st, 2016

GOES-14 Sounder DPI of Total Precipitable Water (TPW) at 1800 UTC on 31 January 2016 [Click to enlarge]

GOES-14 Sounder DPI of Total Precipitable Water (TPW) at 1800 UTC on 31 January 2016 [click to enlarge]

GOES-14, over the Equator at ~105º W Longitude, has been activated in support of SRSO-R Operations in February 2016. One-minute imagery will commence on Monday 1 February. The GOES-14 Sounder has also been activated to fill in, temporarily, for the GOES-13 Sounder that has been inactive since November 2015. An animation of all 19 Sounder channels is available at this link; animations of Derived Product Images (DPI) of Total Precipitable Water from GOES-14, as shown above, are available here, with GOES-14 DPI of Lifted Index available here.

GOES-13 Sounder Anomalies

November 23rd, 2015

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play animation]

GOES-13 Sounder Band 5 Infrared (13.4 µm) images, 0847 and 0947 UTC on 20 November [click to enlarge]

On 20 November, at 0922 UTC, the GOES-13 Sounder experienced an anomaly (the GOES-13 Sounder had Filter Wheel anomalies in 2012 as well: Link; Link). GOES Engineers determined that the Filter Wheel had stopped moving (the filter wheel aligns the infrared detectors with the incoming data) so data were not scanned. The image above shows the 13.4 µm (a CO2 channel) image before and after the anomaly. All 18 infrared channels are affected; the visible channel (band 19) continues sending usable data. GOES Engineers continue to investigate the problem. GOES Sounder derived products (such as Total Precipitable Water) are affected, and are no longer being produced or disseminated (Link). From an email from SSD: (Link)

*Update #2: * **Effective immediately; all the GOES-13 (GOES-East)
sounding products are ceased to produce and stop distribution as we are
experiencing an anomaly with the sounder instrument. Engineers are
investigating the problem. We will inform you when we resume our normal
operations.

*Update #1: * GOES-13 (GOES-East) Sounder IR Data Outage

*Topic:* GOES-13 (GOES-East) Sounder IR Data Products Outage

*Date/Time**Issued:*November 20, 2015 1955Z*
*

*Product(s) or Data Impacted:*

GOES-13 (GOES-East) Sounder data
Blended Hydrometorological Products – Blended TPW
Microwave AWIPS Products – Blended TPW
Microwave McIDAS Products – Blended TPW
GOES Gridded Cloud Product
GOES VARiable data
AFEP/Ingestor – GOES
N-AWIPS Ingest
Single Field of View BUFR
Single Field of View SDPI for AWIPS
Single Field of View TPW
Sounding ASOS SCSP
Web Pages

*Date/Time of Initial Impact:*November 20, 2015 0922Z **

*Date/Time of Expected End:* TBD

*Length of Outage:* TBD

*Details/Specifics of Change:*GOES-13 (GOES-East) Sounder instrumentis experiencing an anomaly. Engineers are investigating the problem. GOES-13 Sounder IR data is not available. **Effective immediately all the GOES-13 (GOES-East) sounding products are ceased to produce and stop distribution as we are experiencing an anomaly with the sounder instrument. Engineers are investigating the problem. We will inform you when we will resume our normal operations.


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Update 19 January 2016
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GOES-14 is scheduled to broadcast 1-minute SRSO-R data starting 1 February. GOES-14 will be activated on 25 January, with a maneuver shortly thereafter. It is likely that GOES-14 Sounder data will be broadcast from 1-25 February (GOES-14 Sounder Timing will be adjusted to match GOES-13 Sounder Timing) when the GOES-14 Imager is broadcasting SRSO-R data.