GOES-14 SRSO-R images of convection in the Southeast US

August 15th, 2013
Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.64 µm visible and 11.45 µm IR images (with surface fronts and MSAS surface wind streamlines)

Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.64 µm visible and 11.45 µm IR images (with surface fronts and MSAS surface wind streamlines)

A comparison of AWIPS images of 1-km resolution Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.64 µm visible channel and 11.45 µm IR channel data at 18:35 UTC on 15 August 2013 (above) showed a number of organized clusters of deep convection which where generally located along a quasi-stationary frontal boundary that was draped across the Southeast US. Streamlines of MSAS surface winds also indicated an area of strong convergence over southeastern Georgia, where new convection was just beginning to develop.

GOES-14 0.63 µm visible channel images (click image to play animation)

GOES-14 0.63 µm visible channel images (click image to play animation)

McIDAS images of 1-km resolution GOES-14 0.63 µm visible channel data (above; click image to play animation) showed the evolution of the developing convection across southeastern Georgia in great detail at 1-minute intervals (since the GOES-14 satellite was in SRSO-R mode). At such a fine temporal resolution, short-lived features such as convective overshooting tops could easily be identified and followed — especially as the convection appeared to intensify as it interacted with the sea breeze boundary along the Georgia and Florida coasts. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument on the next-generation GOES-R satellite will be able to provide images as frequently as every 30 seconds over special mesoscale sectors.

The corresponding 4-km resolution GOES-14 10.7 µm IR channel images (below; click image to play animation) also revealed the evolution of the coldest overshooting tops associated with the most vigorous thunderstorm updrafts. The coldest GOES-14 storm top IR brightness temperature was -74º C at 21:10 UTC. During the time period of the animation, there were reports of damaging winds at a few locations across far southeastern Georgia and far northeastern Florida (SPC storm reports). On the GOES-R ABI, the spatial resolution of the IR imagery will be improved to 2 km, which should make the identification of important storm-top signatures easier.

GOES-14 10.7 µm IR channel images (click image to play animation)

GOES-14 10.7 µm IR channel images (click image to play animation)

GOES-14 Super Rapid Scan images of valley fog in West Virginia

August 14th, 2013
GOES-14 0.63 µm visible channel images (click image to play animation)

GOES-14 0.63 µm visible channel images (click image to play animation)

An animation of 0.63 µm visible channel images (above; click image to play animation; also available as a QuickTime movie) from the GOES-14 satellite (which was in SRSO-R mode, providing images at 1-minute intervals) captured the dissipation of nocturnal valley fog across West Virginia and parts of adjacent states on the morning of 14 August 2013. The haziness seen across the southern quarter of the images was due to a layer of smoke aloft, transported from large fires which had been burning in the northwestern US.

About an hour prior to the first 11:20 UTC GOES-14 visible image above, a comparison of 1-km resolution POES AVHRR and 4-km resolution GOES-13 IR brightness temperature difference “Fog/stratus product” images (below) demonstrated the advantage of higher spatial resolution for the accurate detection of such small-scale features at night (before visible imagery becomes available). Map outlines have been removed, but the image is centered over West Virginia; the darker signature of the Ohio River (winding from northeast to southwest) can best be seen in the POES AVHRR image.

POES AVHRR and GOES-13 IR brightness temperature difference

POES AVHRR and GOES-13 IR brightness temperature difference “Fog/stratus product” images

 

GOES-14 SRSO-R Views of Convection over Montana

August 14th, 2013
GOES-14 and GOES-15 0.62 µm Visible images (click image to play animation)

GOES-14 and GOES-15 0.62 µm Visible images (click image to play animation)

SRSO-R GOES-14 1-minute imagery shows the dynamic nature of the cirrus canopy over developing convection. Strong convection over Montana includes multiple overshooting tops that are visible in the GOES-14 imagery. Routine GOES-15 imagery, also shown, lacks the temporal resolution to capture the growth and decay of many cloud-top features. This is especially true every three hours when a full-disk image is scanned (at 0000 UTC, for example), and at times when satellite housekeeping precludes scanning (at 0045 UTC in this case). The 10.7 µm imagery, below, tells a similar tale. Cold cloud tops appear and vanish at time scales that are not resolved by present operational capabilities.

GOES-R will allow for simultaneous full disk scanning and RSO scanning at the mesoscale.

GOES-14 and GOES-15 10.7 µm IR images (click image to play animation)

GOES-14 and GOES-15 10.7 µm IR images (click image to play animation)

GOES-14 Super Rapid Scan Operations (SRSO) 1-minute imagery

August 13th, 2013
GOES-14 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (click image to play animation)

GOES-14 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (click image to play animation)

The GOES-14 satellite was placed into Super Rapid Scan Operations for GOES–R (SRSO-R) mode on 13 August 2013, providing images at 1-minute intervals over the western US. The prime features of interest were wildfires burning in southern Idaho and northern California. McIDAS images of GOES-14 3.9 µm shortwave IR data (above; click image to play animation) showed that some clouds and thunderstorms (black to cyan color enhancement) were moving over Idaho during the pre-dawn hours, but a few flickers of fire “hot spots” (brighter white enhancement) could be seen through breaks in the clouds. Northern California was cloud-free, which allowed a good view of the fire hot spots over that region. Note: real-time GOES-14 SRSO-R images are available here, here, and here.

AWIPS images of GOES-15/GOES-13 10.7 µm IR channel data (below) showed that the thunderstorms moving across Idaho were producing numerous cloud-to-ground lightning strikes, which could have ignited new fire activity.

GOES-15/GOES-13 10.7 µm IR image composite (with cloud-to-ground lightning strikes)

GOES-15/GOES-13 10.7 µm IR image composite (with cloud-to-ground lightning strikes)

An AWIPS comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS 3.74 µm shortwave IR and 0.7 µm Day/Night Band images at 09:30 UTC or 3:30 AM local time (below) revealed that there were still hot spot signatures (brighter white enhancement on the shortwave IR image) evident as the fires in Idaho continued to burn through the night-time hours — and the large fire complexes also exhibited a very bright signature on the corresponding Day/Night Band image. Other bright areas on the Day/Night Band image were city lights.

Suomi NPP VIIRS 3.74 µm shortwave IR and 0.7 µm Day/Night Band images

Suomi NPP VIIRS 3.74 µm shortwave IR and 0.7 µm Day/Night Band images

With the arrival of daylight, GOES-14 0.63 µm visible channel images (below; click to play animation; also available as a QuickTime movie) showed the dissiparion of the thunderstorms over Idhao during the morning hours.

GOES-14 0.63 µm visible channel images (click image to play animation)

GOES-14 0.63 µm visible channel images (click image to play animation)

Farther to the south, GOES-14 0.63 µm visible channel images (below; click image to play animation) showed the morning erosion of areas of inland marine stratus, along with a variety of nearshore eddy circulations on different spatial scales: large eddies west of the Los Angeles area, and a series of tiny eddies moving southward from Point Sur.

GOES-14 0.63 µm visible channel images (click image to play animation)

GOES-14 0.63 µm visible channel images (click image to play animation)