The corresponding GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) and Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images (below) revealed cloud-top infrared brightness temperature values as cold as -58º C (darker red color enhancement) at 0030 and 0100 UTC on 04 May.A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS false-color “Snow vs cloud discrimination” Red/Green/Blue (RGB), Visible (0.64 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm), and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1834 UTC (above) showed that while a large fire hot spot was apparent on the Shortwave Infrared image, there was no clear indication of any pyrocumulus cloud development at that time. However, a similar image comparison at 2018 UTC (below) revealed that a well-defined pyroCb cloud had formed (with a cloud-top infrared brightness temperature as cold as -60º C, dark red color enhancement) which was drifting just to the north of the Fort McMurray airport (whose cyan surface report is plotted near the center of the images). A 2104 UTC NOAA-19 AVHRR image provided by René Servranckx showed a minimum IR brightness temperature of -59.6º C. A closer look using Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color RGB and Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images from the SSEC RealEarth site (below) showed the initial pyroCb cloud as it had drifted just east of Fort McMurray, with the early stages of a second pyroCb cloud just south of the city. A nighttime comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images at 1015 UTC or 3:15 am local time (below; courtesy of William Straka, SSEC) showed the bright glow of the large Fort McMurray wildfire, as well as the lights associated with the nearby oil shale mining activity. A sequence of Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images covering the 02 April – 04 April period (below) showed the diurnal changes as well as the overall growth of the fire hot spot (darker black pixels).
===== 05 May Update =====
The GOES-14 satellite was operating in Super Rapid Scan Operations for GOES-R (SRSOR) mode, providing images at 1-minute intervals — and the scan sector was positioned to monitor the Fort McMurray wildfire on 05 May. GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (below; also available as a large 133 Mbyte animated GIF) showed the growth of the smoke plume and fire hot spot signature (black to yellow to red pixels).
A 30-meter resolution Landsat-8 false-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) image (below) showed the size of part of the fire burn scar (darker brown) as well as the active fires (bright pink) along the perimeter of the burn scar.
===== 06 May Update =====
The Fort McMurray fire continued to produce a great deal of smoke on 06 May, and the coverage and intensity of fire hot spots increased during the afternoon hours as seen on 1-minute GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (below; also available as a large 180 Mbyte animated GIF).
===== 13 May Update =====A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) and Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images at 0906 UTC or 3:06 am local time (above) showed the fire hot spots (dark gray to yellow to red pixels) and their nighttime glow.
A time series of VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images covering the 04-13 May period (below) revealed the rapid early growth of the fire, and the continued slow spread of the fire periphery toward the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. On 13 May the total size of the area burned by the Fort McMurray fire was estimated to be 241,000 hectares or 595,524 acres.
===== 16 May Update =====Strong southerly winds ahead of an approaching trough axis (surface analyses) created favorable conditions for rapid fire growth on 16 May — GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images (above) showed the development of pyrocumulus clouds (first on the far western flank of the fire around 1930 UTC, then later in the eastern portion of the fire area). This new flare-up of fire activity prompted additional evacuations of some oil sands work camps and facilities north of Fort McMurray.
A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1932 UTC (below) showed that a small pyroCb had developed, which exhibited a cloud-top IR brightness temperature of -41.48 C.A toggle between the corresponding VIIRS true-color RGB image and Shortwave Infrared images is shown below. A time series plot of surface weather conditions for Fort McMurray (below) shows that during prolonged periods of light winds, the surface visibility dropped below 1 mile at times. The air quality at Fort McMurray was rated as “extreme“, and deemed unsafe for residents to return to the city.
===== 17 May Update =====A shift to westerly winds followed the passage of a surface trough axis on 17 May (surface analyses), which slowed the northward progress of the fire. GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above; also available as an MP4 animation) continued to show a great deal of thick smoke over the region, with hot spots from active fires.
However, during the afternoon hours multiple pyroCb clouds were seen to develop along the eastern flank of the fire. A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 2054 UTC (below) revealed the pyroCb clouds, which exhibited cloud-top IR Window brightness temperatures as cold as -57º C (darker orange color enhancement).A comparison of GOES-15 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) and Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images (below; also available as an MP4 animation) showed the development of the pyroCb clouds around 2000 UTC, whose anvil debris moved rapidly southeastward; these pyroCb clouds exhibited a darker gray appearance on the shortwave IR images, along with cloud-top IR Window brightness temperatures as cold as -52º C (light orange color enhancement). Lightning strikes were detected during the early stages of pyroCb growth.
===== 18 May Update =====Daily Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images covering the period 04 May to 18 May 2016 are shown above. The rapid growth of the perimeter of fire hot spots (yellow to red color enhancement) is quite evident during the first few days; patches of thick cloud cover tended to mask the fire hot spots during the middle of the period, but then another increase in hot spot growth is seen beginning on 16 May.
Time series plots of surface data for Walnut Ridge (KARG) located just to the northeast and Newport (KM19) located farther to the south-southwest are shown below. Surface reports indicated that the visibility was reduced to less than 1 mile at 1756 UTC at Newport, and less than 3 miles at 1735 UTC at Walnut Ridge.On the previous day, a comparison of the 1849 UTC Aqua MODIS Visible (0.65 µm) image and the corresponding Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) product (below) showed that there were many areas upwind (to the southwest of) Portia and Walnut Ridge — in both southern Lawrence and northern Jackson counties — that exhibited low NDVI values (tan color enhancement), indicative of recently-plowed and/or unplanted agricultural fields within that part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. It is possible that field plowing activities on that windy day may have been the catalyst for the some of the blowing dust plumes. Similarly, a comparison of the 1849 UTC Aqua MODIS NDVI and Land Surface Temperature (LST) products (below) showed that the land surface in areas with less vegetation were warming up more quickly, with some LST values in excess of 90º F (darker red enhancement).
A nighttime comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images at 0823 UTC or 3:23 AM local time (below) showed the hot spots and the bright glow of the large and very hot fire.
A sequence of Shortwave Infrared images from POES AVHRR, Terra/Aqua MODIS, and Suomi NPP VIIRS (below) provided higher-resolution snapshots of the rapid northward progression of the fire during the overnight hours (aided by strong southerly winds), followed by an east/northeastward expansion during the subsequent daylight hours (driven by a switch to strong southwesterly winds after the passage of a dryline).GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) images (below) revealed a large increase in smoke produced by the fire during the day on 23 March. This smoke was drawn cyclonically northeastward then northward around the circulation of a storm system that was deepening over western Kansas. Afternoon wind gusts were as high as 61 mph in Newton, Kansas. Downstream of the fire source region, smoke reduced the surface visibility to 4 miles at Hutchinson, Kansas (station identifier KHUT) at 21 UTC or 4 PM local time, and Wichita (station identifier KICT) reported a visibility of 1.75 miles at 00 UTC or 7 PM local time; ash falling from the smoke aloft caused the surface air quality in Wichita to briefly deteriorate to unhealthy levels. In the early afternoon at 1748 UTC or 12:48 PM local time, a pilot report near the northern flank of the fire (below) indicated that the tops of the smoke towers were already rising to altitudes of 8000 to 11000 feet above ground level. It is of interest to note that a similar (albeit smaller) grass fire spread rapidly northward from Oklahoma into Kansas, one county to the west and about one month earlier: the Buffalo fire. That event had the benefit of Super Rapid Scan Operations of GOES-14, which provided imagery at 1-minute intervals. The ABI instrument on the GOES-R satellite will be capable of providing 1-minute images over 2 pre-defined mesoscale sectors.
===== 24 March Update =====A map of the Anderson Creek Fire perimeter (above) was issued by the Oklahoma Forestry Services at 1642 UTC or 11:42 AM local time. At that time, an estimated 397,420 acres (621 square miles) had been burned — which makes it the largest wildfire on record for the state of Kansas.
A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color and false-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images from the SSEC RealEarth site (below) showed the extent of the burn scar, with smoke plumes drifting south-southeastward from 2 small areas of fires that were still actively burning at 2106 UTC or 4:06 PM local time. As discussed above, it can be seen that the fire crossed (and forced the closure of) US Highway 160 between Coldwater and Medicine lodge, and came very close to the town of Medicine Lodge.
===== 25 March Update =====With ample illumination from the Moon (in the Waning Gibbous phase, at 98% of Full), the contrast between the dark Anderson Creek fire burn scar and the lighter surrounding grassland was very apparent on a Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) image at 0742 UTC or 2:42 AM local time. This example demonstrates the “visible image at night” capability of the VIIRS Day/Night Band.